Monday, 26 March 2018

Scientific Sessions to be Discussed

The visual system is a model for  higher brain function studies.  The main two aspects of visual neuroscience are, the function of brain mechanisms that encoding information about the form, color, motion, and depth of visual objects and scenes and other that decoding this information to generate perceptual experience and visually-guided action.
Visually-Guided Gaze Behavior
Spectrum Sensitivity
Neural and Computational Models of Vision
Perception of Light and Shadows

Ocular biochemistry  details  in research on biochemical, immunological and genetic aspects of the eye diseases. Proteins that are  unique to the eye and have special functions in the eye, such as collagen's role in the structure of the cornea, emphasize the importance of these compounds and their ocular functions , lipids that exist in the eye ,neurochemistry etc are also discussed.
Biochemistry of Vision
Ocular Fluids
Metabolism of Cornea
Genetic basis of Retinoblastoma
 Wald’s Visual Cycle
 Photochemistry of Vision

Ocular pathology  related to  surgical pathology and also to ophthalmology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the eyes. It is used to identify  the  pathological condition and also to understand the pathophysiology of the disease.
Thyroid Eye Disease
Mechanical Trauma
Corneal Dystrophies

Ocular microbiology details  advancements in molecular biology and pave way for better understanding of ocular diseases.  The field of infectious diseases are rapid, thus many opportunistic pathogenic agents are increasingly found in ocular infections due to widespread use of topical and systemic immunosuppressive agent. These opportunistic pathogens cause ocular infections due to continuous use of contact lens. The dreadful  cataract extraction and lens implantation often are mainly caused by these opportunistic pathogens.The acute infections of the external eye are caused by a vivid range of microbiological pathogens .
Bacterial Conjunctivitis
Viral Conjunctivitis
Dendritic Keratitis
A visual prosthesis  has the  significance of restoring of vision .It is achieved by stimulation of nerve fibers .  All retinal prostheses under development are intended to deliver electrical pulses on to the retina.  The retinal prosthesis will capture visual images using micro electronic prosthesis  and turn light energy into electrical pulses, and pass electrical pulses to the retina thus enabling the blind  to have vision. Visual prostheses could interface with the visual pathway at multiple locations.
Argus retinal prosthesis
Microsystem -based visual prosthesis (MIVP)
Implantable miniature telescope
Tübingen MPDA Project Alpha IMS
Harvard/MIT Retinal Implant
Artificial silicon retina (ASR)
Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis
Intracortical visual prosthesis

 It is comprehensive and composed with  ocular therapeutics. The basic pharmacology of drug delivery in the eye; systemic medications  with their indications and                                                                                                                contraindications. Medication-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs) - extra and intraocular muscles and Anti-infective drugs for primary eye care; Ophthalmic corticosteroids  are also managing  the ocular inflammatory response.
periocular injections
ocular drugs

Eradicating ocular melanoma is done by radiation and surgerical method. The common  radiation therapy used  to treat  ocular melanoma is called plaque radiation therapy.  A disk attached with radioactive seeds, called plaque is placed directly on the wall of the eye  lying next to the tumor. Treatment options will vary based on the location and size of the melanoma and health.  Melanoma on the eyesurface is treated with chemotherapy eye drops, freezing treatment, and radiation.   
Plaque Radiotherapy
Trans-Sclera Local Resection
Trans-Retinal Endoresection
Transpupillary Thermotherapy
The cornea is the protective outer layer of the eye. Corneal disease terms the condition that affect cornea of eye.  These include infections, tissue breakdown, and other disorders transfered from parents.  Eye diseases and injuries cause corneal damage.  Cornea is cone shaped rather than domeshaped in the Keratoconus and in Fuchs’ dystrophy the cells in the inner layer of the cornea are malfunctioning.
Inflammatory corneal disease.
Neurotrophic  Keratitis
Cornea Ulcer
Autologous serum
Amniotic membrane transplantation

Glaucoma is a disease which damages the eye’s optic nerve. It happens when fluid builds up in the front part of the eye.  That extra fluid present increases the pressure in the eye, damaging the optic nerve. In recent years  there has been  new surgical advances in glaucoma surgery.  The XEN Gel Stent , a hybrid between traditional glaucoma surgery and  invasive glaucoma surgery.  Implanted ab interno through a clear cornea incision  creates a bleb by shunting fluid from the anterior chamber to  subconjunctival space.
Pigmentary Glaucoma
Pseudoexfoliative Glaucoma
Traumatic Glaucoma
Neovascular Glaucoma
Irido Corneal Endothelial Syndrome (ICE)
Uveitic Glaucoma
XEN Gel Stent
Punctual Plug Delivery

Orthokeratology is shortened as "ortho-k" and called corneal reshaping (CR) or corneal refractive therapy.  Orthokeratology refers to usage of gas permeable contact lenses that reshape the cornea and reduces refractive errors such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.  New ortho-k lens designs are available for farsightedness and presbyopia.  Research also stated that orthokeratology lens designs slowers the progression of myopia.
 Corneal Refractive Therapy
Myopia Control
Corneal Reshaping

The unique products  have to be different from what the big-box stores offer.  Price doesn't be an issue with unique products, they gain the value back  because they are harder to find .  The successful Optometrists are those who surround themselves  with an Accountant, Lawyer and Banker.  These industry experts help when making key decisions, like buying an existing practice or financing a new, practice valuation, loan structure and industry trends that might affect future decisions, so the solid planning is  important . Opening a new Optometry practice is a risky but a rewarding venture.  The market stratergies are changing with upcoming innovations and focuses on the reaching the higher standards.
innovations in optometric appliances
value chain concept
ECP patient marketing
profit model strategies

  The damage to photoreceptor cells of the retina is known as the retinal degeneration. The photoreceptor cells are the light sensing cells in the retina, a delicate nerve layer that lines  behind the eye.  The  photoreceptor cells absorb the light  and  initiate a continuous electrical impulses that are sent through the retina via optic nerve to the brain and create an image.  When the photoreceptor cells malfunctions due to the degenerative disease, the image received is  distorted or completely unseen. The common retinal degenerative diseases are Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). The artificial retina is the current solution to this problem.
 Age Related Macular Degeneration
 choroidal neovascularization (CNV)
 Sorsby’s Fundus Dystrophy (SFD)

Vision science , an interdisciplinary study of visual systems and perception and includes many disciplines like optometry, ophthalmology, molecular genetics, neuroscience and physiological optics. The vision science details in the study of vision from the perspectives of computer science, cognitive psychology and psychophysics. The advancement is improving the human visual health , vision and action, visual crowding, visual masking, spatial vision, temporal sensitivity, flicker, optometry, ophthalmology, texture perception, classification image, reverse correlation, spatial uncertainty etc.
Visual Acuity and Visual Field
Visual Motor Abilities
Visual Perception
Ocular surgery  always progresses along the advancement of science advances.  New emerging technologies in laser enhance the surgeries. When the natural lens of your eye becomes cloudy due to age its known as  cataract.  It can be replaced with an artificial lens implant.  An ophthalmologist prefers surgical instruments and ultrasound power to  replace the eye's cloudy lens. The surgeons are dealing in such tiny spaces in the eye, they depend on  lasers not blades, for improved precision, though lasers have been used only for other eye surgeries, such as vision correction (LASIK) surgery.
Laser eye surgery.
Cataract surgery.
Glaucoma surgery.
Refractive surgery.
Corneal surgery.
Vitreo-retinal surgery.
Eye muscle surgery.

Ocular drug delivery was a milestone to pharmacologists  due to eye's unique anatomy and physiology. The clinical demand arises for the delivery of therapeutic molecules in the anterior and posterior parts of the eye. Conventional eye drops are used for the treatment of ocular low corneal penetration but has poor ocular bioavailability (5%). Hence biopolymers are preferred for the composite materials that  enhances the precorneal retention time, drug delivery control and induces the corneal absorption of drugs.
Scleral Buckling Materials
Capsular type
Retrometabolic delivery system
A visual testing of a patient's iris is to make a diagnosis.   Iris abnormalities caused  from trauma, infection, neoplasm and genetic reasons.  The iris  structure is composed of connective tissue and blood vessels that lies anterior to lens. The central opening of the iris denotes the pupil. The color of  iris is determined by pigmented cells  lies in the stroma. Pigment accumulate in these cells during the first year of life, and the color of  iris often changes during times. The posterior layer of  iris is deeply pigmented. It also extends slightly onto the anterior surface of the  pupil.
Heterochromia iridis
The  vision disorders are refractive errors, more commonly referred as nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism and presbyopia.   When the shape of  eye prevents light from focusing directly on to retina leads to refractive errors . The eyeball length  ,corneal shape change , or lens aging causes refractive errors. Anisocoria is  characterized by an unequal   eyes' pupil size. Astigmatism is a vision condition that causes blurred vision occuring  when the cornea  is irregularly shaped and sometimes because of the curvature of the eye lens inside.
Black eye

Several diseases affect the eye, either directly or indirectly .  These conditions require urgent professional care to preserve the vision. The common types of the eye diseases are pink eyes,styes and chalazia etc. Pink eye  is an  infection of the transparent membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the white region of the eyeball. It iscommonly caused by the bacterial and viral infection, or an allergic reaction and it iscontagious.Styes and Chalazia ,two common conditions that affect the eyelids. A chalazion causes blockage of  the small oil producing glands (meibomian glands) that found in the upper and lower eyelids. Styes are infections or abscesses of the eyelid gland near an eyelash root or follicle.
 macular oedema
Children experience more changes in bodies and vision while growing.  Thus it is recommended  for testing the baby's eyes between ages 6 months to one year and especially if the child was born prematurely or it has a lazy eye or crossed eyes or there is a family history of eye disease. Once children reach three age, eye examinations should be conducted regularly.  Professional eye care is important part in the child's annual health care routine.  During first 12 years of life, 80 percent learning is through vision hence Vision problems detected early are more helpful to treat, and may avoid the need for glasses or a strong vision prescription.
autorefractive screening
visual evoked potential /response

Diagnostic imaging techniques  gains tremendous importance in the examining  ocular and orbital disease. The diagnostic imaging, with special focus directed toward the advanced modalities are important in evaluation of the traumatized eye.  Advances made in diagnostic and imaging techniques within the  years have revolutionized the field, and helps in management of many ophthalmic diseases.  The basic tools of refractive surgery are Wavefront and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT).
Multimodal Imaging
Small Gauge Endoscopy
 Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography
OCT Angiography

In the  visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing  refers to decision-based scene analyses and combines prior knowledge with retinal input to create representations. This is the method by which the brain gets visual information and thus  it process information and its ability to recognize one's visual misconceptions and fufils the efforts to merge the knowledge gaps.
Scene Categorization
Visual Recognition

Optic neuropathy generally describes optic nerve abnormalities or damage, also including the causes as blocked blood flow and exposure to toxic.  The symptoms for optic neuritis can include blurring and blind spots and even distorted vision, reduced color vision and pain on the eye movements.  These types of symptoms may lead to vision loss due to optic neuritis.   Optic neuritis  occurs in adults younger than 45 and affects more on  women .  The common condition in people having multiple sclerosis (MS), where the nerve coverings are destroyed by the immune system.
 Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
Fourth Nerve Palsies
oblique myokymia

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